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...from A to Z
Forecast Systems & Disease/Pest Alerting Services
Fusarium Websites
Karnal Bunt (Tilletia)
Late Blight


Above Grounder's Introduction to Mycorrhiza, maintained and provided by "Tree of Life Nursery". You will find general information on mycorrhiza, the benefits, revegetation, the application in agriculture (including disease and drought resistance) and information on VAM products (VAM 80).

British Columbia Ectomycorrhizal Research Network (BCERN), The Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, Natural Resources Canada, British Columbia, Canada. This is the web site for ectomycorrhizal research in British Columbia and home for the on-line version of A Manual of Concise Descriptions of North American Ectomycorrhizae. Available information: Introduction (where all menu entries are explained), about ectomycorrhizal descriptions, ordering the manual, and other sites. The on-line manual should not be missed by those interested in ectomycorrhiza. The on-line manual itself is an own website providing a lot of highly useful information like preparation of ectomycorrhiza, a glossary, checklist of ectomycorrhizal characters and of course the descriptions (including morphology and anatomy all accompanied by images). The site is easy to navigate, also available in French and provides essential information on ectomycorrhiza - TIP in this section.

Bruns Lab, Department of Plant and Microbial Biology, University of California, Berkeley. Research: Ectomycorrhizal ecology, evolution of rust fungi, evolution of ectomycorrhizal Basidomycetes, Population Genetics of the root-rot pathogen Heterobasidion annosum. Available Information: Personnel, tour the lab, fungi images (mushrooms, mycorrhizal fungi part I+II, rust fungi), primer sequences & maps (18S, 28S, ITS...) and links.

Cantharellus cibarius: Mycorrhiza formation and Ecology, by Eric Danell, 1994, Acta Univ. Ups., Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology 35.

Cantharellus Research Group, maintained by Department of Forest Mycology and Pathology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden. Available Information: Aim of the group, people involved in research worldwide, meetings, fruitbody formation in the greenhouse, pictures, ectomycorrhizal mushrooms, Links and a thesis on Cantharellus.

CARIVAM - The Caribbean Mycorrhizal Network. Maintained by the Department of Biological and Chemical Sciences, The University of the West Indies, Bridgetown, Barbados. Available Information: Coordination, Aims, Information & Registration, Links, Contact to CARIVAM.

Centre for Plant Root Symbioses (CPRS), Department of Soil and Water, Faculty of Agricultural and Natural Resource Sciences, University of Adelaide, Australia. Research in mycorrhizas and other important root symbioses involving nematodes and phylloxera. Core programs: (1) recognition, colonisation and control of the establishment of the symbiosis between plants and mycorrhizal fungi, nematodes and phylloxera, (2) structure and function of the symbiotic interfaces, particularly as they relate to transport of nutrients between the organisms, (3) development of molecular and other methods to detect and study the ecology of mycorrhizal fungi in field soils and in roots, and (4) effects of the symbioses on growth, productivity and interactions in plant communities. Further available: members, activities & contact, annual report,

Colour Atlas of Ectomycorrhiza, by R. Agerer, Section Mycology, Institut für Systematische Botanik, University of München, Germany. The Colour Atlas is an international work for determination and illustration of ectomycorrhizae with colour photos and half-tone plates of most important anatomical features. Availavle: Projects, Publications.

Ectomycorrhizal Technology for Increasing the Productivity of Forest Plantations, by C. Kuek, Faculty of Business & Technology, The University of Western Sydney, Macarthur, Campbelltown, Australia. Mycorrhizal inoculum production: Mycobead. Available Information: Introduction, Project Description and Background, references. In project history you will find the details on immobilized mycorrhizal fungi, free-culture of mycorrhizal fungi or a Cost-benefit analysis.

European Bank of Glomales (BEG), hosted at the University of Kent, UK. Available information: introduction and the committees of BEG, BEG culture collections database, BEG-Net project, protocols, news, COST action 821 and more. The BEG-Net project is aimed to develop "A European Stock Centre and Genetic Archive For Biotechnologically-Important Non-Culturable Symbiotic Fungi". Within the protocol section you will find "Spore Extraction from Pot Culture" and "Making a permanent slide mount". The site also features a Dummie's Guide to Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi including an overview on Glomales and taxonomy & techniques. The site is very well constructed and easy to navigate, but sometimes it is a little bit slow loading, because the site uses Java. Anyway, it is worth-while waiting, because the given information is highly useful. A tip in this section.

Forest Mycology and Mycorrhiza Research Team, Forestry Sciences Laboratory, Corvallis, Oregon, USA: Research on the biology and ecology of forest fungi in Pacific Northwest forest ecosystems.

Fungal and Soil Ecology Lab (FASEL), Botany Department, University of Guelph, Ontario, Canada. Research in the field of mycorrhiza: Diversity and function of arbuscular mycorrhizas during old field succession, Mycorrhizal colonization of sugar maples planted in an urban environment, nitrogen deposition and mycorrhiza in forests. Available information: Staff, research, publication, What is a mycorrhiza?, Fact sheets.

Horticultural Crops Research Laboratory, USDA - ARS. Research Leader: R.G. Linderman. Go to Project and Staff for Mycorrhizal Information. Understanding the Use of Soil Biota in Sustainable Agricultural Systems (G. J. Bethlenfalvay): (1) Mycorrhiza and Crop Productivity, (2) Arbuscular Mycorrhizas and Agrosystem Stability, (3) Mycorrhizal Interactions in Sustainable Agriculture, (4) Mycorrhizae, biocides, and biocontrol and more. These well organized on-line documents will give you an excellent ovierview on the covered topics. Effects of mycorrhizae and rhizosphere microorganisms on plant growth and health (Dr. R.G. Lindermann). This site comes with a lot of on-line documents and articles. The value of the articles and the covered topics makes this website a tip in this section.

INRA MycorWeb: Mycorrhiza & Fungi, WWW server of the Forest Microbiology Unit (I.N.R.A.), Champenoux, France. Available: About Ectomycorrhiza, DNA Databases, Molecular Ecology, Links, about the Team. In the ectomycorrhizal section you will find pictures and information on the morphogenesis.

The International Culture Collection of Arbuscular and VA Mycorrhizal Fungi (INVAM), West Virginia University, College of Agriculture and Forestry: On the server you will find culture information (Species Reference Cultures), taxonomy (Nomenclature and Authorities of Glomales Species, Biology), photos.

Mycorrhiza Dependency Information, Horticultural Research International (HRI), HRI Efford, Lymington, Hants, UK. This site is aimed at providing an easy way of accessing information about plant growth responses to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Information can be accessed from a list of plant species, or a list of fungal species. Beside information on the web pages you will find simple, P-related and complex mycorrhiza depenencies. Further available: links and information about HRI.

Mycorrhiza Information Exchange Web Site, server site located at the University of Tennessee, USA. This site is a cooperative information exchange, developed and collectively maintained by scientists interested in promoting ease of access to mycorrhizal information. Available: introduction, latest literature search results, mycorrhizal bibliographies, directories (groups and people), an image gallery, jobs, literature, research (e. g. techniques, grants), teaching (e. g. online courses), FAQs, and much more. In mycorrhizal essays you will find a collection of excelent documents on the symbiosis. Links to other major sites as well as several glossaries are also available. The site is intended to function as an exchange platform for mycorrhiza and yes it is. If you are first time visitor you get an introduction or read "What is Mycorrhiza?". If you are searching for information on mycorrhiza and are not sure where to go, make a first stop here.

Mycorrhiza Research Group, School of Science, University of Western Sydney, Nepean, Australia. Research projects: Molecular study of the ecology of Cortinarius spp. and Pisolithus spp., Roles of mycorrhizal fungi in plant litter decomposition, Arsenate tolerance, Epacridaceae, mycorrhizal fungi associated with Epacris microphylla, fungi forming mycorrhizas with Pisonia grandis, Influence of toxic metal pollution and more. Further available: general information, members, facilities, publications (e. g. books), contact, research opportunities and links.

Mycorrhizae Research Group, The University of The West Indies, Bridgetown, Barbados. The group has a wide interest in mycorrhizae especially (Vesicular)-Arbuscular Mycorrhizae. VAM in sustainable Agriculture, Crop Ecology, Development of a transformation system for G. decipiens, G. rosea and G. margarita. Information on the Current Research Projects and Recenet Publications.

Mycorrhizal Fungi, Digital Learning Center for Microbial Ecology. This site is part of the "Microbial Zoo" which is an excellent education resource. Mycorrhizal fungi is one part out of three in the section "The Root Cellar" (the others are: Rhizobium, Rhizopshere). You will find information on arbuscular mycorrhiza, Glomus intraradix, spore in sorghum roots, giant spore of endomycorrhizae and some more.

Mycorrhizal Program at Northeastern Area State & Private Forestry, Forest Health Protection, Morgantown, USA. Introduction to Ectomycorrhiza, Endomycorrhiza and Mycorrhizal Inoculation. Tree Species and their Mycorrhizal Associates, Links to Producers & Suppliers of Mycorrhizal Inoculum and other sites and Images.

Mycorrhizal Research at T. Ihii's Lab, Department of Technology, Faculty of Education, Ehime University: Axenic culture of VAM fungi, VAM and growth of horticultural plants

Mycorrhiza Research Group, School of Science, University of Western Sydney, Nepean, Australia. Available: about the Mycorrhiza Research Group, Group Members, Facilities, Current Projects, Recent publications, new books and images of ectomycorrhizal fungi. Among their current projects you will find topics like Arsenate tolerance in ericoid mycorrhizal fungi, molecular ecology and taxonomy of Pisolithus spp or roles of mycorrhizal fungi in plant litter decomposition

Mycorrhizal Research Group, Soil Science, Waite Campus, Faculty of Agricultural and Natural Resource Sciences, University of Adelaide, Australia. Research Interests: Colonisation, physiology and nutrition of VA mycorrhizae, Molecular plant-fungus interactions, Ecology and Biodiversity and others.

Mycorrhizas at ITE, Institute for Terrestrial Ecology (ITE), Edinburgh Research Station, UK. Mycorrhizas in tree communities, Impact of forest disturbance on mycorrhizas, Management of mycorrhizal fungi in arid, temperate & boreal regions.

Nutrient uptake by mycorrhizal fungi, Institute of Plant Nutrition, University of Hohenheim, Germany. Organic and inorganic N nutrition, heavy metal uptake, phosphate depletion.

Rhizosphere Biodiversity Research Group, the Egger-Massicotte Research Lab, College of Science & Management, Faculty of Natural Resources & Environmental Studies, University of Northern British Columbia (UNBC), Canada. Research Fields: Molecular analysis of mycorrhizal Ascomycetes, Bacterial Diversity Associated with Ectomycorrhiza, postfire mycorrhizal fungi, ectomycorrhiza characterization and identification, and more in the field of biodiversity of root systems. Protocols & Data Resources: Ectomycorrhizal diversity assessment and DNA sequence alignments. Further available: Researches, publications, links.

Root Biology and Mycorrhiza Research Group, Univ. Guelph, Department of Botany, Ontario, Canada

Soil Microbiology and Mycorrhiza, David Sylvia's Homepage, Soil and Water Science Deptartment, University of Florida. Mycorrhizal Symbiosis gives an overview on of the diversity, function, and management of mycorrhizae. Aeroponic AM Inoculum for scientific use including general and ordering information. Further available: A glossary, on-line resources, courses, publications.

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Fusarium Websites:

Fusarium Database, maintained at Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures (CBS), Baarn & Delft, The Netherlands. Available information on history, requests and search. This site provides also information from the ISPP/ICTF Fusarium Working Group (includes the taxonomy committee and a directory of the group members).

Fusarium Internotes. Homepage for the International Society of Plant Pathology's (ISPP) Committee on Fusarium at Royal Botanic Gardens, Sydney. Contents: News and Views, Fusarium Researchers, Fusarium - The newsletter of the ISPP Committee, Meetings, Committee Members, Publications, Fusarium species, diseases and images.

Fusarium Link Website, maintained by D. Brayford, CABI Bioscience. This site contains in the moment two topics: The Fusarium workshop (including participants, programme and abstracts) and more Fusarium links.

Fuskey - Fusarium interactive key, Eastern Cereal and Oilseed Centre, Canada; Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. Content: Introduction, How to use the key, Searching the interactive key, Growing Fusarium species for identification, Notes and illustrations, References, Acknowledgements. In the search section you will have to answer several questions and at the end you get a list of possible species. In Growing Fusarium you will find detailed information on growth conditions and media. Fuskey is the best internet resource for the identification of Fusarium species. The service is very well organized and very easy to use. Everyone who is interested in Fusarium should not miss to visit this extraordinary website!

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Karnal Bunt:

Karnal Bunt Alert: Australia, by G. M. Murray, J. P. Brennan & R. A. Hare, NSW Agriculture: Information on Biology, Symptoms, What To Do, Contact, Disease Cycle, Spread, Control, resistant varieties, background and much more!

Karnal Bunt of Wheat, written by G. Fuentes Davila, CIMMYT, Mexico. Content: History, distribution & importance, hosts, pathogens, infection & disease cycle, control strategies, techniques for study, references and a glossary.

National Karnal Bunt Survey, National Agricultural Pest Information System (NAPIS). Karnal Bunt Management, questions & answers about this survey, detection of teliospores, Lab protocols, guidelines, reports, general information on KB. This site provides a lot of very useful information.

Bunts and smuts revisited: Has the air been cleared? feature story of the American Phytopathological Society. Contents: Abstracts of the 1998 Smut Fungi Workshop, APS Karnal Bunt Symposium, related sites and the feature story by D.E. Mathre. The APS Karnal Bunt Symposium was hold in 1996. Here you will find all the symposium papers as well as the discussion forum.

Systematics of fungi in the genus Tilletia, developed by the staff of the Systematic Botany and Mycology Laboratory, Agricultural Research Service, USDA, USA. You can select a list of accepted taxa, identification by spore morphology or host species. You can also search the database.

USDA APHIS Plant Protection and Quarantine: Karnal Bunt - A fungal Disease of Wheat caused by the smut fungus Tilletia indica. Information on the Disease, Links to other related sites (e. g. fact sheets, biology phytosanitary...), U. S. Wheat Production (harvest and yield).

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Late Blight:

A commemoration of the Great Famine (Ireland 1845): Get Information on the History, Science, Poetry, Art, Education and Bibliography of the Great Irish Potato Famine. Links to other related resources, Information on Late Blight and a lot more.

Idaho Plant Disease Reporter: Potato Late Blight, Deptartment of Plant, Soil, and Entomological Sciences, Extension Service, University of Idaho. Available: Blight Update, Forecasts, Reporting Fields, Disease Cycle, Symptoms, Control (Before or During Planting, Early Season, Mid Season, Late Season, Harvest & Storage), Chemical Control, Summary and more. The chemical control section includes Fungicide types & selection, Application considerations & methods or When to spray. In reporting fields you can submit a potato disease problem. In the control sections you get general information on how to avoid the diesease.

Late Blight Diagnostic and Research Laboratory, Michigan State University (MSU). Research (see Lab Information): Fungicide Efficacy Trials, resistant cultivars, Variety Trials, Mycorrhiza, Seed Treatments and more. Late Blight Alerts, Disease Diagnosis, Lab Information (includes Research, Publications, Lab Protocols), Weather Information.

Late Blight of Potato, by S.M. Miller & B.W. Carlson, Department of Plant Pathology, University of Wisconsin-Madison. This website is part of 'Introduction to Plant Pathology'. Contents: (1) Disease Cycle: Interaction of Pathogen, Host, Environment, (2) Diagnosis: Symptoms and Signs, (3) Disease Management: Chemical Control, Resistance, Biotechnology, Pathogenicity, and (4) History and Current Issues. Every of these four chapters gives you detailed informations and contains images.

Late Blight of potatoes and tomatoes, New York State IPM program, Cornell University, USA. After a short introduction you will find information on history, prevention (including resistant varieties, fungicides or scouting), symptoms on plants and tubers. The information is intended for use by a home gardener audience and fungicide recommendations are based on materials labeled in the U.S. The document is accompanied by text links to excellent photographs.

Phytophthora infestans News bulletin.

Potato Late Blight: Live on the Internet, APSnet monthly feature (March 16 thru April 30, 1998), The American Phytopathological Society (APS). Available: beside the feature story you will find news releases, teaching materials, late blight simulation software, the Irish Potato Famine and the birth of Plant Pathology, downloadable articles, potato workshop archives, related links comments. This feature will give you an excellent overview on potato late blight and is suited for an interested layman. Very useful is the Lesson in Plant Pathology (teaching materials) which gives an excellent insight on the late blight including symptoms, biology, epidemiology, disease management, significance and references. here you will also find 29 pictures concerning potato late blight. In 1997 the APS created an online discussion forum. The feature provides the archived Transcripts of the Workshop Papers, Discussion Groups, and Introductions. This compilation of artciles, educational materials, news and more is an excellent introduction and starting point.

Views of the Famine, compiled by S. Taylor. This website provides articles published in the news papers from the time of the Famine. Original articles and photos are taken from: (1) The Illustrated London News, (2) The Cork Examiner, (3) The Pictorial Times, (4) Punch and (5) Oxford to Skibbreen (a narrative of a journay during the year of the Irish Famine). and at last you will find a list of related sites. A very comprehensive site, which gives a detailed and exciting insight to the history of the Irish Famine and how a fungus (Phytopthora infestans) influences mankind. Take the time to visit this very extraordinary site and make the trip in history.

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